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Web 2. A Web 2. This contrasts the first generation of Web 1. Examples of Web 2. Whether Web 2. Web 1. In general, content was generated dynamically, allowing readers to comment directly on pages in a way that was not common previously.

Some Web 2. For example, a Web 1. During Web 1. Terry Flew , in his third edition of New Media, described the differences between Web 1. Flew believed these factors formed the trends that resulted in the onset of the Web 2. Some common design elements of a Web 1. The term “Web 2. The Web we know now, which loads into a browser window in essentially static screenfuls, is only an embryo of the Web to come. The first glimmerings of Web 2. The Web will be understood not as screenfuls of text and graphics but as a transport mechanism, the ether through which interactivity happens.

It will [ Writing when Palm Inc. She focused on how the basic information structure and hyper-linking mechanism introduced by HTTP would be used by a variety of devices and platforms. As such, her “2. The term Web 2. In their opening remarks, John Battelle and Tim O’Reilly outlined their definition of the “Web as Platform”, where software applications are built upon the Web as opposed to upon the desktop.

The unique aspect of this migration, they argued, is that “customers are building your business for you”. O’Reilly and Battelle contrasted Web 2. For example,. Netscape framed “the web as platform” in terms of the old software paradigm : their flagship product was the web browser, a desktop application, and their strategy was to use their dominance in the browser market to establish a market for high-priced server products. Control over standards for displaying content and applications in the browser would, in theory, give Netscape the kind of market power enjoyed by Microsoft in the PC market.

Much like the “horseless carriage” framed the automobile as an extension of the familiar, Netscape promoted a “webtop” to replace the desktop, and planned to populate that webtop with information updates and applets pushed to the webtop by information providers who would purchase Netscape servers.

In short, Netscape focused on creating software, releasing updates and bug fixes, and distributing it to the end users. O’Reilly contrasted this with Google , a company that did not, at the time, focus on producing end-user software, but instead on providing a service based on data, such as the links that Web page authors make between sites. Google exploits this user-generated content to offer Web searches based on reputation through its ” PageRank ” algorithm.

Unlike software, which undergoes scheduled releases, such services are constantly updated, a process called “the perpetual beta “. Wikipedia editors are not required to have educational credentials, such as degrees, in the subjects in which they are editing. Wikipedia is not based on subject-matter expertise, but rather on an adaptation of the open source software adage “given enough eyeballs, all bugs are shallow”. This maxim is stating that if enough users are able to look at a software product’s code or a website , then these users will be able to fix any ” bugs ” or other problems.

The Wikipedia volunteer editor community produces, edits, and updates articles constantly. The popularity of Web 2. It’s a story about community and collaboration on a scale never seen before.

It’s about the cosmic compendium of knowledge Wikipedia and the million-channel people’s network YouTube and the online metropolis MySpace. It’s about the many wresting power from the few and helping one another for nothing and how that will not only change the world but also change the way the world changes. Instead of merely reading a Web 2. By increasing emphasis on these already-extant capabilities, they encourage users to rely more on their browser for user interface , application software “apps” and file storage facilities.

This has been called “network as platform” computing. Users can provide the data and exercise some control over what they share on a Web 2. Amazon and eBay , news websites e. YouTube and Instagram and collaborative-writing projects. The impossibility of excluding group members who do not contribute to the provision of goods i. According to Best, [32] the characteristics of Web 2. Further characteristics, such as openness, freedom, [33] and collective intelligence [34] by way of user participation, can also be viewed as essential attributes of Web 2.

Some websites require users to contribute user-generated content to have access to the website, to discourage “free riding”. The key features of Web 2. The client-side Web browser technologies used in Web 2. To allow users to continue interacting with the page, communications such as data requests going to the server are separated from data coming back to the page asynchronously.

Otherwise, the user would have to routinely wait for the data to come back before they can do anything else on that page, just as a user has to wait for a page to complete the reload. This also increases the overall performance of the site, as the sending of requests can complete quicker independent of blocking and queueing required to send data back to the client.

Since both of these formats are natively understood by JavaScript, a programmer can easily use them to transmit structured data in their Web application. When this data is received via Ajax, the JavaScript program then uses the Document Object Model to dynamically update the Web page based on the new data, allowing for rapid and interactive user experience. In short, using these techniques, web designers can make their pages function like desktop applications.

For example, Google Docs uses this technique to create a Web-based word processor. Of Flash’s many capabilities, the most commonly used was its ability to integrate streaming multimedia into HTML pages. With the introduction of HTML5 in and the growing concerns with Flash’s security, the role of Flash became obsolete, with browser support ending on December 31, However, frameworks smooth over inconsistencies between Web browsers and extend the functionality available to developers.

Many of them also come with customizable, prefabricated ‘ widgets ‘ that accomplish such common tasks as picking a date from a calendar, displaying a data chart, or making a tabbed panel. On the server-side , Web 2. NET Framework , are used by developers to output data dynamically using information from files and databases. When data is available in one of these formats, another website can use it to integrate a portion of that site’s functionality. As such, Web 2.

Standards-oriented Web browsers may use plug-ins and software extensions to handle the content and user interactions. It includes discussions of self-service IT, the long tail of enterprise IT demand, and many other consequences of the Web 2. A third important part of Web 2. The social Web consists of a number of online tools and platforms where people share their perspectives, opinions, thoughts and experiences.

As such, the end user is not only a user of the application but also a participant by:. The popularity of the term Web 2. For example, in the Talis white paper “Library 2. Blogs, wikis and RSS are often held up as exemplary manifestations of Web 2. A reader of a blog or a wiki is provided with tools to add a comment or even, in the case of the wiki, to edit the content. Talis believes that Library 2. Here, Miller links Web 2. Many of the other proponents of new 2. The meaning of Web 2. For example, some use Web 2.

There is a debate over the use of Web 2. A growing number of marketers are using Web 2. Companies can use Web 2. Among other things, company employees have created wikis—Websites that allow users to add, delete, and edit content — to list answers to frequently asked questions about each product, and consumers have added significant contributions.

Another marketing Web 2. Saturating media hubs—like The New York Times , PC Magazine and Business Week — with links to popular new Web sites and services, is critical to achieving the threshold for mass adoption of those services.

In a recent article for Bank Technology News, Shane Kite describes how Citigroup’s Global Transaction Services unit monitors social media outlets to address customer issues and improve products. In tourism industries, social media is an effective channel to attract travellers and promote tourism products and services by engaging with customers. The brand of tourist destinations can be built through marketing campaigns on social media and by engaging with customers.

The campaign used social media platforms, for example, Facebook and Twitter, to promote this competition, and requested the participants to share experiences, pictures and videos on social media platforms.

The tourism organisation can earn brand royalty from interactive marketing campaigns on social media with engaging passive communication tactics. Korean Airline Tour created and maintained a relationship with customers by using Facebook for individual communication purposes.

Travel 2. The travel 2. For example, TripAdvisor is an online travel community which enables user to rate and share autonomously their reviews and feedback on hotels and tourist destinations. Non pre-associate users can interact socially and communicate through discussion forums on TripAdvisor. Social media, especially Travel 2.


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Therefore, the organisations should develop strategic plans to handle and manage the negative feedback on social media. Although the user-generated content and rating systems on social media are out of a business’ controls, the business can monitor those conversations and participate in communities to enhance customer loyalty and maintain customer relationships.

For example, blogs give students a public space to interact with one another and the content of the class. A study by researchers at the University of Wisconsin-Madison notes that ” This increase could then lead to better communication between researchers and the public, more substantive discussion, and more informed policy decision.

Ajax has prompted the development of Web sites that mimic desktop applications, such as word processing , the spreadsheet , and slide-show presentation. No longer active. They mimic the user experience of desktop operating systems, offering features and applications similar to a PC environment, and are able to run within any modern browser.

However, these so-called “operating systems” do not directly control the hardware on the client’s computer. Numerous web-based application services appeared during the dot-com bubble of — and then vanished, having failed to gain a critical mass of customers. Many regard syndication of site content as a Web 2. Syndication uses standardized protocols to permit end-users to make use of a site’s data in another context such as another Web site, a browser plugin , or a separate desktop application.

Observers have started to refer to these technologies as Web feeds. Specialized protocols such as FOAF and XFN both for social networking extend the functionality of sites and permit end-users to interact without centralized Web sites. Servers often expose proprietary Application programming interfaces API , but standard APIs for example, for posting to a blog or notifying a blog update have also come into use.

Critics of the term claim that “Web 2. Second, many of the ideas of Web 2. Amazon also opened its API to outside developers in Tim Berners-Lee , who developed the initial technologies of the Web, has been an outspoken critic of the term, while supporting many of the elements associated with it. Sharing a file or publishing a web page was as simple as moving the file into a shared folder.

Perhaps the most common criticism is that the term is unclear or simply a buzzword. For many people who work in software, version numbers like 2. The web does not have a version number. If Web 2. But that was what the Web was supposed to be all along That was what it was designed to be Other critics labeled Web 2. For example, The Economist has dubbed the mid- to lates focus on Web companies as “Bubble 2.

In terms of Web 2. Keen’s book, Cult of the Amateur , argues that the core assumption of Web 2. They can make themselves available, but if nobody wants to look at their site, that’s fine.

To be honest, most people who have something to say get published now. There is also a growing body of critique of Web 2. Others have noted that Web 2. When looking at Web 2. For instance, Twitter offers online tools for users to create their own tweet, in a way the users are doing all the work when it comes to producing media content.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. World Wide Web sites that use technology beyond the static pages of earlier Web sites. Main article: History of the World Wide Web. Main article: Web API. Cloud computing Collective intelligence Connectivity of social media Crowd computing Enterprise social software Mass collaboration New media Office suite Open source governance Privacy issues of social networking sites Social commerce Social shopping Web 2.

Sci-Mate Business 2. S2CID Archived from the original on Retrieved Archived PDF from the original on I first heard the phrase ‘Web 2. O’Reilly Network. BBC News. California: Corwin Press. ISBN Webopedia Definition”. Scientific American. Bibcode : SciAm. PMID Archived PDF from the original on October 1, Retrieved October 1, First Monday.

Archived from the original on 25 October Retrieved 23 September New Media: An Introduction 3rd ed. Melbourne: Oxford University Press. IndiaHCI Conference. Retrieved 20 February January 28, Archived from the original on February 22, Retrieved February 15, Blog Data Space. August 21 OpenLinkSW. Jeff Bezos Comments about Web Services. September The year of Web services.

CIO, December Opening Welcome: State of the Internet Industry. In San Francisco, California, October 5. Person of the Year: You. December Web Services. Rochester, NY. SSRN Ames: “Experiments on the Provision of Public Goods. The American Journal of Sociology , Vol. You can freely use the academic papers written to you as they are original and perfectly referenced. Whenever students face academic hardships, they tend to run to online essay help companies. If this is also happening to you, you can message us at course help online.

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Having many years of experience, we are aware of many things as we have practiced a lot over the time and thus we are able to satisfy our customer needs. For a large research library, this means holdings of millions of volumes, already purchased at a cost of hundreds of millions of dollars, are not accessible in a format that is more meaningful and easier to use for many researchers today. For books primarily from the mid th Century, presumptively still protected by copyright, but not currently available in electronic form from their rightsholders, we believe CDL holds significant promise.

We also believe the legal rationale for lending these works is among the strongest of all types of works. Others may have identifiable owners, but are in practice neglected, unavailable in the digital marketplace and with no plan for revitalization in modern formats. So, how can libraries provide access? First, we start with a detailed look at the two fundamental copyright law doctrines that already empower libraries to fulfill their missions: first sale and fair use. Section of the Copyright Act enumerates the basic bundle of rights granted to copyright owners: the exclusive right to control reproduction of the work, public distribution of the work, public performances, public displays, and creation of derivative works.

But, the rights granted in Section are limited by a number of statutory exceptions. Section , the statutory first sale doctrine, is one such provision. Entire industries and enterprises are built upon the first sale doctrine. Libraries were built on it. The first sale doctrine balances the rights of copyright owners to distribute with those of purchasers to dispose of their copies as they wish.

With distribution of physical copies, such as lending a print book to a library user, that framework works well enough. Much of the literature on first sale applied in the digital environment recognizes that library lending raises unique concerns requiring special treatment.

Indeed, several libraries have already engaged in limited CDL for years without issue, indicating perhaps a tacit acknowledgement of the strength of their legal position. We limit our analysis to non-commercial, controlled, digital lending by U. That brings us next to fair use. All are to be explored, and the results weighed together, in light of the purposes of copyright.

The basic concept of applying first sale principles to digital transactions is not new, either as justified under the first sale doctrine alone, as fair use, or through some combination of the two together. The U. ReDigi, LLC , has raised the question of how these doctrines apply to a commercial, digital resale market for mp3s. Again, the literature on digital first sale recognizes that library most likely will require special treatment.

And we also believe that these library uses, of all the varying digital uses, are among the most likely to be justified under a fair use rationale. Several libraries have already engaged in limited CDL for years without issue. Our focus is on these narrow and specialized use by libraries. Again, we limit our analysis to non-commercial, controlled, digital lending by U. In applying fair use, not every factor in the analysis will be highly relevant in every situation. The core concept with CDL is that it closely mimics the economic transaction that Congress has already provided for through the first sale doctrine under Section The purpose of the use with CDL is to fulfill the statutory objectives and balance of rights already identified by Congress in Section , effectuating that balance considering a new technological use not contemplated at the time Section was enacted.

When raised, courts have largely rejected that argument. For example, in Sega Enterprises Ltd. Accolade, Inc. As a matter of copyright policy, the presence of a specific copyright exception or, in some cases, other provisions of federal law provides persuasive evidence of the kinds of purposes that should be favored in the fair use assessment. While not extensively litigated, a number of cases indicate that this is the right approach, which we review here to give a sense of the strength of this position.

In Authors Guild v. Some courts have pointed to broader policy objectives, both within and outside of the copyright act, as influencing the purpose and character analysis. Bloomberg, L. Indeed, as Bloomberg points out, the SEC has mandated that when American companies disclose this kind of material nonpublic information, they must make it available to the public immediately.

See Regulation FD, 17 C. Copyright Office has also cited specific copyright exceptions as positively influencing the fair use assessment. Those include looking to Section exceptions for interoperability, Section exceptions for nonprofit public performances and teaching, and Section exceptions for computer program adaptation.

For CDL, the purpose of the use is one that intends to mirror the basic purpose of first sale as embodied in Section In Kirtsaeng v. As technology and markets have shifted, libraries employing CDL seek to use technology to hold up that same balance of rights while allowing users to access materials in formats that are most meaningful to them today. CDL promotes consumer choice in formats and platforms, while avoiding dragging courts into the thicket of restrictions and rights conflicts that would require extensive litigation to resolve.

Under CDL, if one copy is purchased, a library can only lend one copy—either print or physical—out to a user at a time. There are a few cases in the commercial context that come close, however. Those cases are primarily negative, though as we explain below we believe they are distinguishable from CDL applications, and one case is currently on appeal. ReDigi Inc. Upon sale through the ReDigi marketplace, the file would be downloaded to the purchaser and simultaneously deleted from the Cloud Locker.

It did not, however, assess the two provisions together. For fair use, the ReDigi court was fairly dismissive of the purpose factor, focusing almost exclusive on the commerciality of the program.

The analysis was brief and considered almost none of the arguments laid out above. In honing in on the commerciality of the use, the court found that the purpose and character of the use weighed against a fair use finding. For instance, in Wall Data Inc. More recently, in Disney Enterprises, Inc. VidAngel, Inc. For each user, VidAngel would purchase a physical DVD on behalf of the user, which VidAngel then copied, edited and streamed to the user online.

VidAngel conceded that its use was commercial, and the court did not consider the use to be transformative. Like with Wall Data , the streams were provided for videos with known copyright owners who themselves license rights to competing streaming services.

One way these cases are distinguished is just that the issue was not raised; except for ReDigi where the issue was only obliquely argued , first sale and the purpose and character assessment were not raised by the litigants or addressed by the court. The argument was not presented.

Another, more significant distinguishing factor is that all three cases involved commercial uses, both in the specific application and in connection with a broader, functioning market place for the works used. This brings us to the second characteristic of CDL that we believe tilts the first factor analysis decidedly in favor of fair use: Libraries engaging in CDL are doing so for non-commercial research and learning purposes.

Unlike commercial resale or streaming markets, library use of CDL is non-commercial and designed to promote public benefits by facilitating research and learning. Libraries engaging in CDL, as we envision it, will not generate monetary profit. Given the costs of digitizing, building and maintaining the technical infrastructure necessary to lending digitally and controlling physical copies, and personnel time used to restrict print copies when its digital equivalent is circulating, libraries may spend considerable sums with no compensation.

To be sure, libraries and their users would stand to benefit from CDL. We would not propose it if they did not. But under the CDL model we envision, libraries have already paid the customary price, and CDL limits access to a work to one person at a time. Further, when 20 th century books are in question, no market has emerged for digital access to the majority of these books, meaning that no digital access would otherwise be possible.

Libraries engaging in CDL are doing so to enable broad availability of knowledge for the purpose of promoting research, scholarship and learning. These are uses specifically mentioned as examples of fair use by Congress in the statute, [78] and are at the core of the constitutional purpose of the copyright system. Library lending is a critical conduit for those activities, which courts have recognized.

For example, in a case before the U. In summary, we view the purpose and character of the use for CDL to be favored because the purpose is aligned with the principles of another statutory exception section , while the use itself is temporary, non-commercial and leading to important public benefits in research and learning. Our goal with this paper is to give libraries and their counsel as complete a view of the law regarding CDL as we can.

The first is, despite the strong trend found in the above cases favoring library and educational use, there are a limited number of library fair use cases from which to draw guidance. These include some cases involving academic or scholarly uses in which courts have held that the first factor did not favor the use.

This is a general caution, and could be said for any new application of fair use to library practice. The second and more considerable point of concern is that CDL is not clearly transformative. In recent years, U. In mass digitization cases involving books— Google Books and HathiTrust , for example—courts have largely focused on how those projects enabled transformative access to information by enabling text search, as well as research uses such as text and data mining.

However, even if CDL is not transformative, [87] we believe the purpose and character still strongly weighs in favor of a fair use finding. The court in Swatch similarly expressed doubts about whether the use was transformative, but nevertheless concluded that the public benefit and information dissemination purposes—aligned as the Court noted with SEC regulatory guidance—was a favored purpose.

HathiTrust is particularly instructive for CDL because like HathiTrust, the use here is aligned with other Congressionally-sanctioned information policies, the use is non-commercial, and it is aimed at opening up access to readers for research and learning purposes.

In cases such as with CDL, where the purpose of the use so well aligns with the overall purposes of the Act, transformative use considerations should not override. Use in those cases risks undercutting the economic incentives that are at the core of the copyright system by allowing others to scoop the initial publication of the work.

Similarly, courts have found that use of out-of-print works that are unavailable in the marketplace would tend to weigh in favor of the use under the second factor. For CDL, application of the second factor in the abstract is difficult. Library collections include a wide variety of works for which CDL may be used, some of which will fare more or less favorably under the second factor. Given the limited usefulness of this factor in the overall fair use assessment, we do not believe the nature of the work should be determinative.

Nevertheless, some considerations about the nature of the selected works may be helpful for libraries that seek to bolster their overall fair use assertion. These considerations may include applying CDL to works that are out of print, either in print or digitally; of a scholarly or scientific nature, as opposed to popular literature or fiction works; compilations of data e. We offer some operational suggestions about these practices in Part IV of this paper. However, courts have clearly tied the assessment under the third factor to the purpose and character assessment.

For CDL, the purpose of the use is to enable full-text access to books, so readers can read them online. Arguably, that means the entire work is used. However, CDL does place limits on use of the work; it imposes temporal limits on use loans are not indefinite and calls for technological controls on copying that limit further dissemination.


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